“Our growth is generally dependent upon our ability to obtain new contracts to develop and manage new correctional and detention facilities… . The demand for our facilities and services could be adversely affected by the relaxation of enforcement efforts, leniency in conviction and sentencing practices or through the decriminalization of certain activities that are currently proscribed by our criminal laws. For instance, any changes with respect to drugs and controlled substances or illegal immigration could affect the number of persons arrested, convicted, and sentenced, thereby potentially reducing demand for correctional facilities to house them.”—
Corrections Corporation of America, the largest private prison operator in America, statement to stockholders, 2005.
In other words: ending the Drug War and eliminating federal mandatory minimum sentences is bad for business. Adam Gopnik notes that CCA “spends millions lobbying legislators.” presumably, inter alia, to keep harsh sentencing laws on the books.
События последних месяцев наглядно показали, что Голливуд умирает. Они думают, что их убивает файлообмен, но на самом деле это естественный процесс, который идёт в результате технологической революции. Пока мы не знаем, как будет выглядеть индустрия развлечений через 20 лет, но ясно одно — Голливуд умрёт. И нужно сделать так, чтобы это произошло как можно быстрее. Это в интересах всего человечества.
Проблема только в том, что Голливуд — слишком могучая индустрия, чтобы скончаться тихо и мирно, как производители печатных машинок или плёночных фотоаппаратов. Пример SOPA это прекрасно демонстрирует
The dilation and constriction of the pupils reveals how hard we’re thinking, how excited or disgusted we are and more… ______________________________________________________
Our pupils, the black holes which let light into the eyes, don’t just help us see, they also signal what’s going on in our minds.
Here are 10 pieces of psychological research which show how changes in pupil size reveal many aspects of thought.
1. I’m thinking hard
Look into my eyes and ask me to name the cigar-smoking founder of psychoanalysis and you won’t see much change in my pupil size. The name Sigmund Freud comes easily to my lips.
But ask me to explain the laws of cricket and watch my pupils expand.
That’s because research has shown that the harder your brain works, the more your pupils dilate. When Hess and Polt (1964) gave participants more and more difficult tasks to complete, their pupils got bigger and bigger.
2. My brain is overloaded
Keep watching my eyes closely and you’ll spot the point when explaining the laws of cricket gets too much.
Poock (1973) reported that when participants’ minds were loaded to 125% of their capacity, their pupils constricted.
It’ll be trying to explain a googly that will do it. (Don’t ask).
3. I’m brain damaged
The reason doctors and paramedics flash a light in patients’ eyes is to check their brains are working normally (and because it’s such an easy test to do). They use the acronym PERRL: the Pupils should be Equal, Round and Reactive to Light.
If my brain is broken, say, because I’ve had a bump on the noggin, you won’t see PERRL. There may well be other extremely subtle clues, like the blood pouring from my head.
4. You’re holding my interest
The size of my pupils can also signal whether I’m interested in what you’re saying.
White and Maltzman (1977) had participants listening to excerpts from three books: one was erotic, another involved mutilation while a third was neutral.
Their pupils widened at first for all three. But they only remained wide for the passages that were erotic or involved mutilation.
I’m likely to be interested in anything new, so my pupils will dilate a bit at first, but they’ll only stay dilated if I continue to be interested.
5. You’re turning me on
If things take a sexual turn then our eyes are also involved. Both men and women’s pupils expand when they are sexually aroused (e.g. Bernick et al., 1971).
However, not everyone agrees big pupils are a signal of sexual arousal. It tends to get tested by showing nude pictures to people and some argue that we’re just really interested in the nude form.
6. You disgust me
Just as my pupils increase in size when I’m interested or turned on, so they constrict when I’m disgusted.
Hess (1972) showed people pictures of injured children. First people’s pupils dilated because of the shock and then they constricted to try and avoid the troubling images.
7. Whether I’m liberal or conservative
Should you happen to be carrying around pictures of politicians you might be able to work out whether I’m a liberal or a conservative just from my pupil size.
Barlow (1969) showed people pictures of Lyndon Johnson, George Wallace and Martin Luther King, Jr.. The liberals’ pupils dilated when they saw fellow liberals Johnson and King but constricted when they saw conservative Wallace. Conservatives showed the opposite pattern.
8. I’m in pain
If you’ve had enough of this article now and want to cause me some pain in return, then why not stab me with a pencil? If you’re watching closely you’ll see my pupils dilate.
Chapman et al. (1999) fired small electric shocks into people’s fingertips and measured how much their pupils dilated. At maximum intensity the pupils dilated by about 0.2mm.
But that was only to a relatively tame current. Imagine what you could do to my pupils if you plugged me into the mains.
9. I’m on drugs
…and you can narrow down the type by looking at my pupils.
Some drugs, like alcohol and opioids cause the pupils to constrict. Others, like amphetamine, cocaine, LSD and mescaline cause them to dilate.
Police officers know this and some use it as one way of checking if someone is off their face. They generally look for pupils constricted to either less than 3mm or dilated to more than 6.5mm (Richman et al. 2004).
10. My personality
This one is not strictly related to pupil dilation, but it’s too good to leave out.
If you look closely at the coloured part of my eye, the iris, you might even get some clues as to my personality (Larsson et al., 2007).
Look closely for ‘crypts’ in my eyes (lines going away from the iris, labelled 1 above) and this suggests I’m a warm, tender-minded person. If you see furrows (labelled 3 above), then, watch out, I’m impulsive.
It seems that the same gene, Pax6, which affects part of the brain associated with approach-related behaviours (the left anterior cingulate cortex, if you really want to know) also induces tissue deficiencies in the iris.
Too small to see?
As you’ll have noticed, the same pupil response can mean different things, although generally when the pupils dilate it sends a positive message and when they constrict it’s a negative one. But exactly what it means depends on the situation (and whether someone has turned on a light).
This is all good fun to know, but can we really detect these tiny changes in people’s pupil size?
According to an fMRI imaging study, change in pupil size may be difficult for us to notice consciously, but we do seem to pick up on these very small changes unconsciously (Demos et al., 2008).
So changes in pupil size may be experienced, along with other verbal and nonverbal signals, as a gut instinct to either approach someone or run like hell.
Whether or not the eyes are windows to the soul, the pupils are certainly windows to the mind.
When he was at Cambridge University Charles Darwin was a member of the ‘Glutton Club’. The club’s sole activity was eating animals not found in everyday cuisine - hawks and owls were regularly on the menu. On his scientific expeditions Darwin carried on this tradition eating a wide selection of exotic animals including armadillos, iguanas and giant tortoises.
“The long sentence is how we begin to free ourselves from the machine-like world of bullet points and the inhumanity of ballot-box yeas or nays.”—
Pico Iyer, in a pleasant Los Angeles Times article noted by Schmudde, defending his use of “…longer and longer sentences as a small protest against —and attempt to rescue any readers I might have from— the bombardment of the moment.”
Iyer chooses two sorts of reduced expression as examples: bullet points, which are the prose of the business world; and the “inhuman” ballot-box, where political expression occurs. It is amusing to note that many believe that it is in precisely these spaces —the professional and the political— that their identity resides, that the substance of their life resides. If not there, after all, where?